Of course every liberal/democrat in America is unaware or deliberately unaware of the truth Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. being a devout Christian. Another fact about Dr. King is that he was not a democrat, and without an inkling of fashioning did he portray himself a champion for liberals [example; Jessie Jackson, Al Sharpton].
Dr. King believed in freedom and equality for all, but contrary to today's political correctness and popular propaganda he did not believe in abortion, nor did he believe in hating his enemies.
Liberals and democrats today hate and literally demand death to President Trump and all Conservatives/Christians/Republicans; but shouldn't liberals/democrats be reviewing Dr. Martin Luther King's analysis to nonviolence.
If Dr. Martin Luther King Jr were alive during the 2008 Presidential Election would he have voted for an abortion supporting "mulsim obama?" Or would he have voted for a male whore's wife [Hillary] in 2016? Before you make a quick judgement continue reading these notes and when finished reading these notes please answer the survey.
An ultimate shocker to liberals and the majority of you reading this is Dr. Martin Luther King Jr was a Republican. How can Jessie Jackson, Al Sharpton, Maxine Waters, James Clyburn, Sheila Jackson Lee, Elijah Cummings, Barbara Lee, Keith Ellison, etc.. support a Republican aka Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.? Don't these black political pawns/pimps know it's against their liberal master's rules and regulations that Democrats do not support Republicans in any manner? 99% of black democrats today don't even know that Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is a Republican. On the other hand maybe they do know he is and that's the reason they don't support his nonviolent approach to social justice by consistently destroying public and private property when they protest and march. When Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. marched he didn't destroy property and curse at police officers. Any black democrat that decide to study American history eventually become dismayed finding that Dr. King's philosophy of life as a Republican is shared by other prominent icons of American history who believed his same political philosophy concept.
There are many more dedicated American civil architects that are unknown to today's mimicking ignorant civil rights marchers [black lives stupid]. Today's retarded mimicking civil rights marchers [new black panthers] would surely become more disgusted if they knew more political details about their civil rights' heroes. Not only was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. a Republican, but his contemporaries were also; Sojourner Truth was a Republican, Harriet Tubman was a Republican, Sammy Davis Jr was a Republican, A. Philip Randolph was a Republican, Booker T. Washington was a Republican and journalist Ida B. Wells was a Republican. If there are any doubts about this information presented please don't hesitate to verify with your own investigation of the civil architects of America. There will still be those that will not accept belief that the man that changed America's society and government was a Republican.
More important to know is Dr. Martin Luther King Jr changed our American society with real love for all the people; klansmen, southern whites, "racist democrats," militant blacks, dope head hippies and people who generally despised him. This leads us to ask the question of how many liberals/democrats of yesterday and today can claim to be following the footsteps of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. knowing that he was a Republican? Can today's cerebral hollow celebrity driven society honestly follow the footsteps laid by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr? Is it actually possible for those who have spewed out words of venomous poison to Republicans, Conservatives and Christians for their opposing political views become capable of breaking partisan walls strangling this nation? Can liberals in principle align with a sense of reality to discharge the partisan polarity they've purposely stained and soiled the unity of America? Can Conservatives distance themselves from a hard heart and forgive with a declarative of "CAN WE ALL JUST GET ALONG?" [Rodney King]
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr was a man after God's own heart, but he was careful not to trample on the hearts of fellow Americans. Are we capable of following the tracks Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. laid?
With all said, HOW DO YOU THINK Dr. Martin Luther King Jr would have voted in the 2008 Presidential election? Remember, he was a Republican!
Posted by Dr Clayborn at Thursday, February 28, 2019
Growing up in America as a youth in 1959 was very special. During that time in American history life was at its best. We as a people were united in loyalty and patriotism towards our country. Of course there were internal social growing pains, but we were still united as a people, American people. We were gay [not homosexuals], we were happy and we were merry. Those days have long accelerated from the grasp of America's heart to hold a high spirit of genuine love and care for one another without being prompted. For some odd reason today sentiments of having high spirits of concern for our fellow American has been lost from our culture. One reason of many is that the majority of the populous has been tainted as obstructionist to the progressive movement of the national liberal media agenda. Such tainting sets up a division among the populous which in turn creates a polarization of the nation. You can't unite when there are deliberate acts of dividing..
Posted by Dr Clayborn at Friday, February 15, 2019
Please become familiar with the term Domesticated Anthropological Regressed Egotist! The rise of Domesticated Anthropological Regressed Egotist in America have structured the underlining prognosis of America’s current excrement celebrity driven society. The foundation of America’s current immoral and devalued lifestyles are now on full display in society. Consider this, what was a “sin” sixty years ago is now considered wholesome values of morals. What is most sad to see is a “baby nation” [America] of 240 years self destruct in such an accelerated pattern of abolished nationalism. History will only be able to wink at or raise its supercilium [eyebrow] with a passing gesture towards American history due to the quick arrival and departure of its existence. All of this is due to the take over and rule by America’s Domesticated Anthropological Regressed Egotist.
Domesticated Anthropological Regressed Egotist, explained
A nation that was so abundantly blessed with natural resources and human talent running rampant with geniuses during the late 1800’s and early 1900’s suddenly nose dive into an abyss of progressive misdirection is astounding. Yet you must understand that there is a cause and effect for the prevailing social results of America today. There is one group that is responsible for America’s current moral decline and confusion of comprehending the natural laws of human physics and the natural laws of human survival; that group is “Domesticated Anthropological Regressed Egotists.” The common identification of Domesticated Anthropological Regressed Egotists are better known as lesbians, homosexuals, transsexuals and liberals. Let’s dive quickly into the depths of what is indecorously fixated into the American psychological pattern of progressive thought translation via Domesticated Anthropological Regressed Egotists [DARE].
When a caucasian [or black] lesbian or caucasian [or black] gay male demean anything [person or place] it's fair game, it’s permissible, it’s okay. When a caucasian late night show comedian demean any person, place or thing it's funny and hilariously humorous according to the current media culture. What you see unfolding is a fraction of the national culture [DARE] redesigning how Americans had better submit to liberal ideology. Truth be told America has fallen prey to the foundation of what is right and acceptable in the mental linguistic context of the liberal psyche.
So now you say, what’s the point of reference for these cross examining notes and what are they establishing? As stated earlier we are determining the underlining prognosis of how America has become a literal cesspool of immoral values and unnatural governing dimensions which now have been exposed as liberal racism. Simply put, humor has to be approved by liberal’s standard of humor. Open public slander by any liberal towards any Christian, Conservative, Republican or heterosexual is joyously applauded. On the contrary if any liberal [celebrity, entertainer, athlete, school teacher, etc…] is accused of any wrong doing or misbehavior it is taboo to bring any charge against them, which now is governed by liberal rule of society. If you’ll notice the parallel standard of rule set by caucasian liberals [majority democrat voters] typify the same structure of segregated societal rule by their democrat ancestors who forbid DOA’s [descendant of africa] or colored people to have equal privilege to speak openly on issues or judgment. The picture of liberal racism should start forming its presence before your intellect now.
Pre-Approved Liberal Hypocrisy
Quickly over the last 30 years the tables of social behavior have been turned in favor of liberalism and the deceptive religion of political correctness shadowed by muslim fear. Such has given way to any liberal person to demean or debase anyone who isn't part of the liberal mandated society by which we currently live under now. It’s pre-approved for any liberal, lesbian or gay male to exercise their so called new found civil rights and guaranteed free speech upon anyone. So now let us examine the contrary social elements that ruffles the feathers of liberal ideology.
Classic example of contrary liberal social elements would be when someone outside of the central liberal social network makes a joke about a lesbian or homosexual; such is now legally deemed homophobia. But that’s just the beginning of vivid liberal hypocrisy or basically liberal racism established and mandated for all society to adhere to. Liberals, gays, lesbians can speak ill of others who don’t represent the liberal psyche. But on the other hand someone who isn’t liberal, gay, lesbian can’t do so in return towards them. It’s as though we’re back in the 1950’s when a DOA [descendant of Africa] or colored person would dare think about making a general joke or exclamatory suggestion towards a democrat caucasian. Therefore today it’s the same damning social venue for any Christian, heterosexual or Conservative to make any type of comment towards a lesbian, gay or liberal. These new liberal social standards are now etched into federal, state and municipal laws in order to protect any homosexual, liberal or lesbian from any scrutiny or correction on any level of free speech or immoral act. As you can see homosexuals, liberals and lesbians now hold the key to open their prejudice and racist mentality at will without consequences, just like their white forefathers of the Democrat Party were empowered back during slavery time.
Ellen Degeneres Opens Closet of Homosexual Racism
As recently noted, Ellen Degeneres [popular lesbian in liberal society] forwarded her thought transfer of racist annotation toward a dark skinned Jamaican olympic gold medalist. All types of red flags designed to warn and indicate an encroachment into the realm of prejudice or racist inclination were thrown at ellen degeneres for her self made humor of degrading a dark skinned Jamaican olympic gold medalist. But the liberal news networks and liberal social media families quickly extinguished any flames of prejudice and racism that could have burnt ellen degeneres super lesbian manifestation. Although ellen clearly depicted herself as a slave driver on the back of the Jamaican olympic gold medalist in her “posted caption of humor” we should thank her. We should be pleased that ellen degeneres used a picture to depict her true internal psychological foundation of human relationship to illustrate her hidden racist particulars. Now it’s out of the closet about homosexuals, liberals and lesbians being just as prejudice and racist as their Democrat Party forefathers were during the slavery years of American history.
Homosexuals Earn Title of being most “Racist Group in America!
Mostly everyone in America 50 years and younger think lesbians and gay male counter subjects don’t have in their heart to mentally forward a racist demeanor or mean spirit towards individuals of Conservative philosophy, Christians faith or heterosexuals lifestyle. Unfortunately America’s new populous generation of inexperienced individuals who lack wisdom dare run contrary to the liberal utopian concept and belief. The life philosophy of modern liberal youth and young adults consist of the most flaccid and weak concept of real life. Such is well noted due to their indoctrinated status from birth through public school. America’s current young adult generation have aligned with the liberal philosophy of living without accountability or responsibility. Therefore as young adults are converted into liberalism they’re groomed into the mental concept of having no accountability or responsibility. They use their card of unlimited freedom and liberty to do whatever they want. The crushing underlining of their life philosophy is they mandate all other people who don't believe in their life philosophy to be punished legally. Liberals, homosexauls and lesbians truly believe they’re not prejudice or racist in any form or manner. But such is the most hidden lie of the century. Liberal media networks will do their best to hide the true fact that homosexuals, transsexuals, lesbians and liberals at heart are the most racist, prejudice and anti-Christian individuals in the World.
Quick Fact Check: are Homosexuals, liberals, lesbians “fair and honest”
Remember there are two sides of the fence; homosexuals say Christians are homophobic and wont' hire a lesbian or gay male. But again, no one has examined the issue of homosexual business owners deliberately not hiring a professed Christian to their management staff or labor cast. That’s why we want to thank ellen degeneres for opening a door of discussion that has been sealed shut deliberately by America’s liberal society. Lesbians and homosexuals are prejudice and racist too, they are not exempt from the psychological transition of human relationship. Young liberal adults of today can’t conceive this reality because they have been literally brainwashed to believe liberals and homosexuals are pure in thought. It has taken years of indoctrination through public high schools and public universities along with funding by billionaire George Soros to condition such a mass populous to discharge the American foundation of Christian values.
Power Play in governing America
Always remember that those who are in power make the laws and rule the land. Today homosexuals, lesbians, transsexuals and pedophile government officials currently rule, makes laws, policies and set mandatory social relationships for America to abide by. If a heterosexual or Christian does not submit to liberal policies they will face dire legal ramifications from the liberal homosexual government ruling America today. That’s why a Christian comedian or heterosexual can’t make jokes about lesbians or gay boys/males, because it’s against the law of the land today. Freedom of speech is only for liberals in America, and that’s a social fact. Say something bad about a homosexual and watch the firestorm burn you up. Ellen Degeneres can be as racist and mean spirited towards whoever she wants to be and liberal networks and the celebrity entertainment society will giggle and applaud her.
Dr BearClayborn – Political Psychiatrist bit.ly/1GFdANH ACB Newspaper International
Posted by Dr Clayborn at Thursday, February 14, 2019
The Colored Voting Pawn
Today America must understand that blacks of today are nothing more than a colored voting pawn assigned by white liberals and the socialist/communist/muslim movement in America. It’s almost impossible for “Real Americans” to celebrate the cornerstone of America created by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. due to debasing of his foundational truth by rioting black anarchist and white anarchist [lawless black and white activist]. Recent actions of blacks during the years 2008-2016 have proven that blacks have no inclination of peaceful protesting, and definitely no comprehension of judging a person by their character and not their color.
So called black, white and homosexual “civil activist” have basically destroyed the foundational concept of the real civil rights movement. The real civil rights social engineering of America was completed and finalized by those who joined Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. to define the true intent of the founding fathers and the Constitution. Today  there is no link or connection of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. work that can correlate with today’s black activist and white socialist uprising. There can’t be any link of today's blacks with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. because blacks are still trying to fight a civil rights war that has already been won by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. –The original civil rights engineers along with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. placed the final cornerstone of America’s society in place back in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Etched into the cornerstone are the principals of human worth; “only judge a person by the content of their character and not by the color of their skin.” Any so-called civil rights movement of today is clearly a fabricated lie because we already have our human principals of societal function in place, via Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Where is Our King?
2008-2016 America turned its back on GOD, and so did 95% of black voters. In the 2008 and 2012 elections blacks were praising GOD that HE sent them a black king to worship [[sounds familiar? 1st Samuel c8 v5-7]]. In the 2016 elections blacks cried out for a Queen to lead them; well you know the results of that.
In 2008 and 2012 blacks in America were completely fooled into thinking they had finally found their “King.” What blacks had long forgotten was America had already received the best king it could possibly have; Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. – To the shame of blacks in 2008, 2012 and today in America, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and his peers did not sacrifice their life for the current detestable lying black activist of today [Ferguson, Baltimore and other fake black/white liberal social activist movement]. Black and white socialists of today are nothing more than pathetic buffoons trying to regurgitate the 1960’s civil rights movement. Black modern day liberal socialist/activists are keenly ignorant of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and his peers placing the final cornerstone of America’s civil rights in the building of America’s great society.
In 2008 and 2012 blacks in America were completely fooled into thinking they had finally found their “King.” What blacks had long forgotten was America had already received the best king it could possibly have; Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. – To the shame of blacks in 2008, 2012 and today in America, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and his peers did not sacrifice their life for the current detestable lying black activist of today [Ferguson, Baltimore and other fake black/white liberal social activist movement]. Black and white socialists of today are nothing more than pathetic buffoons trying to regurgitate the 1960’s civil rights movement. Black modern day liberal socialist/activists are keenly ignorant of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and his peers placing the final cornerstone of America’s civil rights in the building of America’s great society.
What is Black?
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. completed the rebuilding structure of America’s society with definitive guidelines eliminating the need to base anything on the color of skin. Unlike today, blacks have united with privileged white liberals who continue echoing and assigning the color black to descendants of Africa. It’s an encroaching interest to actually see white liberals who control national liberal media networks continue to color code descendants of Africa as the color black. You’ll never hear the national liberal media networks identify any other race in America by a color, only descendants of Africa, not descendants of Korea, Germany, China, Portugal, Norway, etc….
The liberal network media has trained America’s current young generation to use the color black to identify descendants of Africa. In addition the liberal network media has been training America for the past sixty years to judge a person’s skin color as the determining factor of their worth. As of 2018 there should not be any color coding to identify Americans, but it still remains [read AFRIGEN NATION bit.ly/1wXkuK2 and AMERICAN GENETICS bit.ly/1GFdANH].
Derogatory Social Movement
Today in America you have derogatory social-rights riots [fake civil movements] occurring which could never duplicate or imitate the real civil rights movement completed by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. -These derogatory social-rights riots [fake civil movements] are basically open defiance to law and order. Virtually all social-rights movements are only retarded tactical liberal antics to incite riots, with hope of challenging law enforcement or the order of law.
As most Americans with common sense and research information know, current Democrat party leaders along with America’s post dated first muslim leader are culprits reinforcing the social anarchy movements that produce riots and incite violence. The devastating fact of Democrat party leaders supporting anarchist activity is well documented. Democrat party leaders are actually PAYING anarchist to march and entice other social movement participants to INCITE riot activity for liberal network news coverage [pure social encoding]. Can you imagine being PAID to loot, burn, and intimidate others with social unrest? Well you don’t have to imagine this, its truth.
The question is how can “Real Americans” join in and celebrate the legendary American Social Engineering Builder Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. with anarchist, rioters, thugs, hoodlums and national liberal media networks that promote the color black? The work of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was completed a long time ago. Over the past sixty years America has been adjusting and calibrating its society to Dr. King’s social teaching of judging a person by the content of their character and not the color of their skin. Unfortunately blacks have failed to calibrate what Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. taught. Full proof of blacks inability to assess Dr. King’s Dream was clearly established when blacks voted for the skin color of a presidential candidate for 2008 and 2012.
World View of the King
The world now view blacks 2008 and 2012 voting pattern as insulting to the high standards that Dr. Martin Luther King established. The world now determines blacks as just black voting pawns capable of only voting for the color black. As blacks indulge in voting for the color of a person’s skin it diminishes the profoundness of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. summation of voting for the content and character of an individual and not the color of their skin.
It is disgusting to see blacks call for celebrating Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. when blacks themselves don’t adhere to Dr. King’s cornerstone of “judging the content of ones character and not the color of ones skin.” Instead blacks today are screaming “racism-racism” at every turn of social events in America. It would be the scent of foul excrement for Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. to smell if he were alive today to see groups like “black lives matter, the new black panther party, planned parenthood groups, la raza and homosexual-lgbt groups” holding America hostage and claiming the 1960 civil rights movement as their foundation of justification.
The King’s Cornerstone
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. completed the social engineering building of America with the placement of his cornerstone in the foundation of America’s towering society. Unfortunately blacks in America today  have jolted Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. cornerstone from its place by instituting and carrying out political race baiting, crying out Conservatives are racist in America, carrying out political social race riots and manufacturing fake civil rights movements [Dr. King has already finalized the civil rights movement]. Most importantly the jolting of Dr. King’s cornerstone from America’s foundation by blacks have only increased blacks to be submissive slaves to the identification of being called a color and not a people. Blacks in America today have failed to realize or comprehend that Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was not black, he was a proud AfriGen.
read AFRIGEN NATION bit.ly/1wXkuK2 and AMERICAN GENETICS bit.ly/1GFdANH
Dr BearClayborn – Political Psychiatrist http://bit.ly/1p2H4xF ACB Newspaper International
How Did American Education Transform Into Political Garbage Education?
Discover how education in
America originated and created masterful learning centers; and then became destroyed by the liberal and homosexual
community. Track through the education
timeline from 1600 AD to 2000 AD and witness for yourself the actual
transformation of America’s public schools becoming political garbage dumps.
Discover how education in
1607 – The first permanent English settlement in North America is established by the Virginia Company at
in what is now the state of Virginia.
1620 - The Mayflower arrives at
Cod, bringing the "Pilgrims" who establish the Plymouth
Colony. Many of the Pilgrims are Puritans who had fled religious persecution in
Their religious views come to dominate education in the New
1635 - The first
Grammar School ( ) is established.
Latin Grammar Schools are designed for sons of certain social classes who are
destined for leadership positions in church, state, or the courts. Boston Latin
1635 - The first "free school" in
Virginia opens. However,
education in the Southern colonies is more typically provided at home by
parents or tutors.
1636 - Harvard College, the first higher education institution in what is now the United States, is established in Newtowne (now Cambridge), Massachusetts.
1638 - The first printing press in the American Colonies is set up at
1640 - Henry Dunster becomes President of Harvard College. He teaches all the courses himself!
1642 - The Massachusetts Bay School Law is passed. It requires that parents assure their children know the principles of religion and the capital laws of the commonwealth.
1647 - The Massachusetts Law of 1647, also known as the Old Deluder Satan Act, is passed. It decrees that every town of at least 50 families hire a schoolmaster who would teach the town's children to read and write and that all towns of at least 100 families should have a Latin grammar school master who will prepare students to attend
1690 - John Locke publishes his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, which conveys his belief that the human mind is a tabula rasa, or blank slate, at birth and knowledge is derived through experience, rather than innate ideas as was believed by many at that time. Locke's views concerning the mind and learning greatly influence American education.
1690 - The first New England Primer is printed in
Boston. It becomes the
most widely-used schoolbook in New England.
1692 - The Plymouth Colony merges with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. About 50 miles to the north, in
the infamous Salem Witchcraft Trials take place.
1693 - John Locke's Some Thoughts Concerning Education is published, describing his views on educating upper class boys to be moral, rationally-thinking, and reflective "young gentlemen." His ideas regarding educating the masses are conveyed in On Working Schools, published in 1697, which focused on the importance of developing a work ethic.
1693 - The
of William and Mary is established in Virginia. It is the
second college to open in colonial America and has the distinction of
being Thomas Jefferson's college.
1698 - The first publicly supported library in the
established in Charles Town, South Carolina. Two years later, the General
Assembly of South Carolina passes the first public library law.
1710 - Christopher Dock, a Mennonite and one of
Pennsylvania's most famous educators, arrives from Germany and later opens a school in
Dock's book, Schul-Ordnung (meaning school management), published in 1770, is
the first book about teaching printed in colonial Montgomery County, PA. America. Typical of those in the
middle colonies, schools in Pennsylvania
are established not only by the Mennonites, but by the Quakers and other
religious groups as well.
1734 – Christian von Wolff describes the human mind as consisting of powers or faculties. Called Faculty Psychology, this doctrine holds that the mind can best be developed through "mental discipline" or tedious drill and repetition of basic skills and the eventual study of abstract subjects such as classical philosophy, literature, and languages. This viewpoint greatly influences American education throughout the 19th Century and beyond.
1743 - Benjamin Franklin forms the American Philosophical Society, which helps bring ideas of the European Enlightenment, including those of John Locke, to colonial
Emphasizing secularism, science, and human reason, these ideas clash with the
religious dogma of the day, but greatly influence the thinking of prominent
colonists, including Franklin and Thomas Jefferson.
1751 - Benjamin Franklin helps to establish the first "
with a curriculum that is both classical and modern, including such courses as
history, geography, navigation, surveying, and modern as well as classical
languages. The academy ultimately becomes the .
University of Pennsylvania
1752 - St. Matthew Lutheran School, one of the first Lutheran "charity schools" in North America, is founded in
New York City by Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, after whom Muhlenberg College
in is named. Allentown Pennsylvania
1754 - The French and Indian War begins in colonial
America as the
French and their Indian allies fight the English for territorial control.
1762 - Swiss-born Jean-Jacques Rousseau's book, Emile, ou l'education, which describes his views on education, is published. Rousseau's ideas on the importance early childhood are in sharp contrast with the prevailing views of his time and influence not only contemporary philosophers, but also 20th-Century American philosopher and educational reformer John Dewey.
1763 - The French are defeated, and the French and Indian War ends with the Treaty of Paris. It gives most French territory in North America to
1766 - The Moravians, a protestant denomination from central Europe, establish the
village of Salem in North
Carolina. Six years later (1772), they found a school
for girls, which later becomes , a liberal arts
college for women with a current enrollment of approximately 1100. Salem
1775 - The Revolutionary War begins.
1776 - The Declaration of
Independence is adopted by the Continental
Congress on July 4th. Written by Thomas Jefferson, The document serves notice
to King George III and the rest of the world that the American Colonies no
longer considered themselves part of the British Empire.
1779 – Thomas Jefferson proposes a two-track educational system, with different tracks for "the laboring and the learned."
1783 - The Revolutionary War officially ends with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, which recognizes
independence and possession of all land east of the Mississippi
except the Spanish colony of Florida
1783 to 1785 - Because of his dissatisfaction with English textbooks of the day, Noah Webster writes A Grammatical Institute of the English Language , consisting of three volumes: a spelling book, a grammar book, and a reader. They become very widely used throughout the
In fact, the spelling volume, later renamed the American Spelling Book and
often called the Blue-Backed Speller, has never been out of print!
1784 - The Ordinance of 1784 divides the Western territories (north of the Ohio River and east of the
into ten separate territories that would eventually become states and have the
same rights as the thirteen original states.
1785 - The Land Ordinance of 1785 specifies that the western territories are to be divided into townships made up of 640-acre sections, one of which was to be set aside "for the maintenance of public schools."
1787 - The Constitutional Convention assembles in
Philadelphia. Later that
year, the constitution is endorsed by the Confederation Congress (the body that
1781 until the ratification of the U.S. Constitution) and sent to state legislatures for ratification. The document does not include the words education or school.
1787 - The Northwest Ordinance is enacted by the Confederation Congress. It provides a plan for western expansion and bans slavery in new states. Specifically recognizing the importance of education, Act 3 of the document begins, "Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged." Perhaps of more of practical importance, it stipulates that a section of land in every township of each new state be reserved for the support of education.
1787 - The
Young Ladies Academy
opens in Philadelphia and becomes the first
academy for girls in America.
1788 - The U. S. Constitution is ratified by the required number of states.
1791 - The Bill of Rights is passed by the first Congress of the new
United States. No
mention is made of education in any of the amendments. However, the Tenth
Amendment to the Constitution states that powers not delegated to the federal
government "are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the
people." Thus, education becomes a function of the state rather than the
1801 - James Pillans invents the blackboard.
1812-1815 - The War of 1812, sometimes called the "Second War of Independence," occurs for multiple reasons, including
U.S. desires for territorial expansion and
British harassment of U.S.
merchant ships. The war begins with an
unsuccessful invasion of Canada
forces. Though the Treaty of Ghent, signed on December 24, 1814, supposedly
ends the war, the final battle actually takes place January 8, 1815 with U.S. forces defeating the British at New Orleans.
1817 - The Connecticut Asylum at
Hartford for the Instruction of Deaf and Dumb
Persons opens. It is the first permanent school for the deaf in the U.S. Thomas
Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc are the school's co-founders. In 1864,
Thomas Gallaudet's son, Edward Miner Gallaudet, helps to start , the first college
specifically for deaf students. Gallaudet University
1823 - Catherine Beecher founds the Hartford Female Seminary, a private school for girls in
. She goes on to found
more schools and become a prolific writer. Her sister, Harriet Beecher Stowe,
an influential abolitionist, is the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Hartford,
1827 - The state of
passes a law requiring towns of more than 500 families to have a public high
school open to all students.
1829 - The New England Asylum for the Blind, now the
for the Blind, opens in Massachusetts,
becoming the first school in the U.S. for children with visual
1836 - The first of William Holmes McGuffey's readers is published. Their secular tone sets them apart from the Puritan texts of the day. The McGuffey Readers, as they came to be known, are among the most influential textbooks of the 19th Century.
1837 - Horace Mann becomes Secretary of the newly formed Massachusetts State Board of Education. A visionary educator and proponent of public (or "free") schools, Mann works tirelessly for increased funding of public schools and better training for teachers. As Editor of the Common School Journal, his belief in the importance of free, universal public education gains a national audience. He resigns his position as Secretary in 1848 to take the Congressional seat vacated by the death of John Quincy Adams and later becomes the first president of
1837 - Eighty students arrive at Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, the first college for women in the
U.S. Its founder/president is Mary
1837 - The African Institute (later called the Institute for Colored Youth) opens in
. Now called Cheyney,
Pennsylvania , it the oldest institution of
higher learning for African Americans. Cheyney University
1839 - The first state funded school specifically for teacher education (then known as "normal" schools) opens in
. Lexington, Massachusetts
1848 - Samuel Gridley Howe helps establish the
for Teaching and Training Idiotic Children, the first school of its kind in the
1849 - Elizabeth Blackwell graduates from
, becoming the
first woman to graduate from medical school. She later becomes a pioneer in the
education of women in medicine. Geneva Medical
1851 - The New York State Asylum for Idiots opens.
enacts the first mandatory attendance law. By 1885, 16 states have
compulsory-attendance laws, but most of those laws are sporadically enforced at
best. All states have them by 1918.
funding the for
Feeble-Minded Children, a private school for children with intellectual
1854 -The Boston Public Library opens to the public. It is the first major tax-supported free library in the
1854 - Ashmun Institute, now
is founded on October 12, and as Horace Mann Bond, the university's eighth
president states in his book, Education for Freedom: A History of Lincoln
University, it becomes the "first institution anywhere in the world to
provide higher education in the arts and sciences for male youth of African
descent." The university's many distinguished alumni include Langston
Hughes and Thurgood Marshall. Lincoln University
1856 - The first kindergarten in the
U.S. is started in ,
founded by Margarethe Schurz. Four years later, Elizabeth Palmer Peabody opens
the first "formal" kindergarten in Watertown, Wisconsin . Boston, MA
1857 - The National Teachers Association (now the National Education Association) is founded by forty-three educators in
1859 - Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species is published on November 24, introducing his theory that species evolve through the process of natural selection, and setting the stage for the controversy surrounding teaching the theory of evolution in public schools that persists to this day.
1860 - Abraham Lincoln, an anti-slavery Republican, is elected president.
1861 - The U.S. Civil War begins when
South Carolina secedes from the union and
along with 10 other states forms the Confederate States of American. The
shooting begins when is attacked on
April 12. With the exception of the First Morrill act of 1862, educational
progress is essentially put on hold until the war's end. Fort
1862 - The First Morrill Act, also known as the "Land Grant Act" becomes law. It donates public lands to states, the sale of which will be used for the "endowment, support, and maintenance of at least one college where the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life." Many prominent state universities can trace their roots to this forward-thinking legislation.
1863 - President Lincoln signs the "Emancipation Proclamation" on January 1.
1865 - The 13th Amendment is passed, abolishing slavery.
1865 - The Civil War ends with Lee's surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. Much of the south, including its educational institutions, is left in disarray. Many schools are closed. Even before the war, public education in the south was far behind that in the north. The physical devastation left by the war as well as the social upheaval and poverty that follow exacerbate this situation.
1865 - Abraham Lincoln is assassinated, and Andrew Johnson, a southern Democrat and advocate of state's rights, becomes President.
1866 - The 14th Amendment is passed by Congress as one of the reconstruction amendments. If ratified by three-fourths of the states, it would give all persons born or naturalized in the
United States citizenship and equal
protection under the law.
1867 - The Department of Education is created in order to help states establish effective school systems.
1867 - After hearing of the desperate situation facing schools in the south, George Peabody funds the two-million-dollar Peabody Education Fund to aid public education in southern states.
Howard University is established in
to provide education for African American youth "in the liberal arts and
sciences.” Early financial support is provided by the Freedmen's Bureau. Washington D.C.
1867 - Christopher Sholes invents the "modern" typewriter. Known as the Sholes Glidden, it is first manufactured by E. Remington & Sons in 1873.
1867 & 1868 - The four Reconstruction Acts are passed over President Andrew Johnson's veto. They divide the south into military districts and require elections to be held with freed male slaves being allowed to vote.
1868 -In spite of opposition by southern states, the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified and becomes law. It guarantees privileges of citizenship including due process and equal protection under the law including the right to vote for freed male slaves. It becomes the basis for the rulings in Brown v. Board of Education and Pyler v. Doe as well as many other important court cases.
1869 - Congress passes the 15th Amendment. It prohibits states from denying male citizens over 21 (including freed slaves) the right to vote.
creates the first public day school for the deaf.
1873 - The Panic of 1873 causes bank foreclosures, business failures, and job loss. The economic depression that follows results in reduced revenues for education. Southern schools are hit particularly hard, making a bad situation even worse.
1873-The Society to Encourage Studies at Home is founded in
Boston by Anna Eliot
Ticknor, daughter of Harvard professor George Ticknor. It's purpose is to allow
women the opportunity for study and enlightenment and becomes the first
correspondence school in the United
1874 - The Michigan State Supreme Court rules that
Kalamazoo may levy taxes
to support a public high school, setting an important precedent for similar
rulings in other states.
1875 - The Civil Rights Act is passed, banning segregation in all public accommodations. The Supreme Court rules it unconstitutional in 1883.
1876 - Edouard Seguin becomes the first President of the Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for Idiotic and Feebleminded Persons, which evolves into the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.
Meharry Medical College
is founded in . It is the first medical school in
the south for African Americans. Nashville, Tennessee
1876 - The Dewey Decimal System, developed by Melvil Dewey in 1873, is published and patented. The DDC is still the worlds most widely-used library classification system.
1877 - Reconstruction formally ends as President Rutherford B. Hayes removes the last federal troops from the south. The foundation for a system of legal segregation and discrimination is quickly established. Many African Americans flee the south.
1879 - The first Indian boarding school opens in
It becomes the model for a total of 26 similar schools, all with the goal of
assimilating Indian children into the mainstream culture. The schools leave a
controversial legacy. Though some see them as a noble, albeit largely
unsuccessful experiment, many view their legacy to be one of alienation and
"cultural dislocation." The Carlisle, Pennsylvania
closes in 1918. Famous athlete Jim Thorpe is among the school's thousands of
alumni. Carlisle Indian
1881 - Booker T. Washington becomes the first principal of the newly-opened normal school in
Tuskegee, Alabama, now . Tuskegee
1884 -The first practical fountain pen is patented by Lewis Waterman.
1887 - The Hatch Act of 1887 establishes a network of agricultural experiment stations connected to land grant universities established under the First Morrill Act.
1889 - Jane Addams and her college friend Ellen Gates Starr found Hull House in a
neighborhood of recent
European immigrants. It is the first settlement house in the U.S. Included
among its many services are a kindergarten and a night school for adults. Hull
House continues to this day to offer educational services to children and
1890 - The Second Morrill Act is enacted. It provides for the "more complete endowment and support of the colleges" through the sale of public lands, Part of this funding leads to the creation of 16 historically black land-grant colleges.
is founded in
1891 by former California Governor and railroad tycoon Leland Stanford in
memory of his son, Leland Jr. Stanford
1892 - Formed by the National Education Association to establish a standard secondary school curriculum, the Committee of Ten, recommends a college-oriented high school curriculum.
1896 - Homer Plessy, a 30-year-old African American, challenges the state of
"Separate Car Act," arguing that requiring Blacks to ride in separate
railroad cars violates the 13th and 14th
Amendments. The U.S. Supreme Court upholds the Louisiana law stating in the majority
opinion that the intent of the 14th Amendment "had not been intended to
abolish distinctions based on color." Thus, the Supreme Court ruling in
the case of Plessy v. Ferguson
makes "separate but equal" policies legal. It becomes a legal
precedent used to justify many other segregation laws, including "separate
but equal" education.
1898 - The Spanish American War makes Theodore Roosevelt a hero, and the
becomes an international power.
1900 - The Association of American Universities is founded to promote higher standards and put
U.S. universities on an equal
footing with their European counterparts.
Joliet Junior College, in ,
opens. It is the first public community college in the Joliet, Illinois U.S.
1903 - Ivan Pavlov reads his paper, The Experimental Psychology and Psychopathology of Animals, at the 14th International Medical Congress in
explaining his concept of the conditioned reflex, an important component of classical
1904 - Mary McLeod Bethune, an African American educator, founds the Daytona Educational and
Training School for Negro Girls in .
It merges with the Cookman Institute in 1923 and becomes a coeducational high
school, which eventually evolves into Daytona Beach, Florida Bethune-Cookman
College, now .
1905 - Alfred Binet's article, "New Methods for the Diagnosis of the Intellectual Level of Subnormals," is published in
describes his work with Theodore Simon in the development of a measurement
instrument that would identify students with mental retardation. The
Binet-Simon Scale, as it is called, is an effective means of measuring
1905- The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is founded. It is charted by an act of Congress in 1906, the same year the Foundation encouraged the adoption of a standard system for equating "seat time" (the amount of time spent in a class) to high school credits. Still in use today, this system came to be called the "Carnegie Unit." Other important achievements of the Foundation during the first half of the 20th Century include the "landmark 'Flexner Report' on medical education, the development of the Graduate Record Examination, the founding of the Educational Testing Service, and the creation of the Teachers Insurance Annuity Association of America (TIAA-CREF)." See the Carnegie Foundation's home page for additional information.
1909 - Educational reformer Ella Flagg Young becomes superintendent of the Chicago Public Schools. She is the first female superintendent of a large city school system. One year later she is elected president of the National Education Association.
1911 - The first Montessori school in the
U.S. opens in .
Two years later (1913), Maria Montessori visits the Tarrytown, New York U.S.,
and Alexander Graham Bell and his wife Mabel found the Montessori Educational
Association at their , home Washington,
1913 - Edward Lee Thorndike's book, Educational Psychology: The Psychology of Learning, is published. It describes his theory that human learning involves habit formation, or connections between stimuli (or situations as Thorndike preferred to call them) and responses (Connectionism). He believes that such connections are strengthened by repetition ("Law of Exercise") and achieving satisfying consequences ("Law of Effect"). These ideas, which contradict traditional faculty psychology and mental discipline, come to dominate American educational psychology for much of the Twentieth Century and greatly influence American educational practice.
1914 - The Smith-Lever Act establishes a system of cooperative extension services connected to land grant universities and provides federal funds for extension activities.
1916 - Louis M. Terman and his team of
graduate students complete an American version of the Binet-Simon Scale. The
Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale becomes a widely-used individual
intelligence test, and along with it, the concept of the intelligence quotient
(or IQ) is born. The Fifth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Scales is among the
most popular individual intelligence tests today. For additional information on
the history of intelligence testing, see A.C.E. Detailed History of the I.Q. Test. Stanford University
1916 -The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) is founded. So is the American Educational Research Association (AERA).
1916 - John Dewey's Democracy and Education. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education is published. Dewey's views help advance the ideas of the "progressive education movement." An outgrowth of the progressive political movement, progressive education seeks to make schools more effective agents of democracy. His daughter, Evelyn Dewey, coauthors Schools of To-morrow with her father, and goes on to write several books on her own.
1916 - The Bureau of Educational Experiments is founded in
New York City by Lucy
Sprague Mitchell with the purpose of studying child development and children's
learning. It opens a laboratory nursery school in 1918 and in 1950 becomes the
Bank Street College of Education. Its School for Children is now "an
independent demonstration school for ."
This same year (1916), Mrs. Frank R. Lillie helps establish what would become
the University of Chicago Nursery School. Bank
1917 - The Smith-Hughes Act passes, providing federal funding for agricultural and vocational education. It is repealed in 1997.
1917 - As the
U.S. enters W.W.I the army has no
means of screening the intellectual ability of its recruits. Robert Yerkes,
then President of the American Psychological Association and an army officer,
becomes Chairman of the Committee on Psychological Examination of Recruits. The
committee, which includes Louis Terman, has the task of developing a group
intelligence test. He and his team of psychologists design the Army Alpha and
Beta tests. Though these tests have little impact on the war, they lay the
groundwork for future standardized tests.
1918 - World War I ends on 11 November.
1919 - The Treaty of
is signed on 28 June. It officially ends the state of war between Germany and the
Allied Powers. However, the terms of the treaty are tragically flawed, and
instead of bringing lasting peace, it plants the seeds for World War II, which
begins twenty years later.
1919 - The Progressive Education Association is founded with the goal of reforming American education.
1919 - All states have laws providing funds for transporting children to school.
1920 - John B. Watson and his assistant Rosalie Rayner conduct their experiments using classical conditioning with children. Often referred to as the Little Albert study, Watson and Rayner's work showed that children could be conditioned to fear stimuli of which they had previously been unafraid. This study could not be conducted today because of ethical safeguards currently in place.
1920 - The 19th Amendment is ratified, giving women the right to vote.
1921 - Louis Terman launches a longitudinal study of "intellectually superior" children at
The study continues into the 21st Century! Stanford University
1922 - The International Council for Exceptional Children is founded at
1922 - Abigail Adams Eliot, with help from Mrs. Henry Greenleaf Pearson, establishes the
Nursery School in Roxbury,
MA, one of the first educational nursery
schools in the U.S.
It becomes the Eliot-Pearson Children's School and is now affiliated with the
Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development at . Tufts University
1924 - Max Wertheimer describes the principles of Gestalt Theory to the Kant Society in
Gestalt Theory, with its emphasis on learning through insight and grasping the
whole concept, becomes important later in the 20th Century in the development
of cognitive views of learning and teaching.
vs. John Scopes ("the Monkey Trial") captures national attention as
John Scopes, a high school biology teacher, is charged with the heinous crime
of teaching evolution. The trial ends in Scopes' conviction. The evolution
versus creationism controversy persists to this day.
1926 - The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) is first administered. It is based on the Army Alpha test.
1929 - Jean Piaget's The Child's Conception of the World is published. His theory of cognitive development becomes an important influence in American developmental psychology and education.
1929 - The Great Depression begins with the stock market crash in October. The
economy is devastated. Public education funding suffers greatly, resulting in
school closings, teacher layoffs, and lower salaries.
1931 - Alvarez vs. the Board of Trustees of the Lemon Grove (California) School District becomes the first successful school desegregation court case in the United States, as the local court forbids the school district from placing Mexican-American children in a separate "Americanization" school.
1932 - Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected president and begins bold efforts to initiate his New Deal and spur economic recovery. His wife, Eleanor, becomes a champion of human rights and forever transforms the role of American First Lady.
1935 - Congress authorizes the Works Progress Administration. Its purpose is to put the unemployed to work on public projects, including the construction of hundreds of school buildings.
1939 - Frank W. Cyr, a professor at
Teachers College, organizes a national conference on student transportation. It
results in the adoption of standards for the nation's school buses, including
the shade of yellow. Columbia University
1939 - The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (first called the Wechsler- Bellevue Intelligence Scale) is developed by David Wechsler. It introduces the concept of the "deviation IQ," which calculates IQ scores based on how far subjects' scores differ (or deviate) from the average (mean) score of others who are the same age, rather than calculating them with the ratio (MA/CA multiplied by 100) system. Wechsler intelligence tests, particularly the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, are still widely used in
schools to help identify students needing special education.
1941 - The
enters World War II after the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor
on December 7. During the next four years, much of the country's resources go
to the war effort. Education is put on the back burner as many young men quit
school to enlist; schools are faced with personnel problems as teachers and
other employees enlist, are drafted, or leave to work in defense plants; school
construction is put on hold.
1944 - The G.I. Bill officially known as the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, is signed by FDR on June 22. Some 7.8 million World War II veterans take advantage of the GI Bill during the seven years benefits are offered. More than two-million attend colleges or universities, nearly doubling the college population. About 238,000 become teachers. Because the law provides the same opportunity to every veteran, regardless of background, the long-standing tradition that a college education was only for the wealthy is broken.
1945 - World War II ends on August 15 (VJ Day) with victory over
1946 - At one minute after midnight on January 1st, Kathleen Casey-Kirschling is born, the first of nearly 78 million baby boomers, beginning a generation that results in unprecedented school population growth and massive social change. She becomes a teacher!
1946 - In the landmark court case of Mendez vs.
Westminster and the California Board of Education, the U. S. District Court in Los
Angeles rules that educating children of Mexican descent in
separate facilities is unconstitutional, thus prohibiting segregation in California schools and
setting an important precedent for Brown vs. Board of Education.
1946 - The computer age begins as the Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC), the first vacuum-tube computer, is built for the
military by Presper Eckert and John Mauchly.
1946 - With thousands of veterans returning to college, The President's Commission on Higher Education is given the task of reexamining the role of colleges and universities in post-war
America. The first volume of its report, often
referred to as the Truman Commission Report, is issued in 1947 and recommends
sweeping changes in higher education, including doubling college enrollments by
1960 and extending free public education through the establishment of a network
of community colleges. This latter recommendation comes to fruition in the
1960s, during which community college enrollment more than triples.
1946 - Recognizing "the need for a permanent legislative basis for a school lunch program," the 79th Congress approves the National School Lunch Act.
1947 - In the case of Everson v. Board of Education, the U.S. Supreme Court rules by a 5-4 vote that a New Jersey law which allowed reimbursements of transportation costs to parents of children who rode public transportation to school, even if their children attended Catholic schools, did NOT violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
1948 - In the case of McCollum v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court rules that schools cannot allow "released time" during the school day which allows students to participate in religious education in their public school classrooms.
1950 - Public Law 81-740 grants a federal charter to the FFA and recognizes it as an integral part of the program of vocational agriculture. The law is revised in 1998 and becomes Public Law 105-225.
1952 - Public Law 550, the Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 1952, modifies the G.I. Bill for veterans of the Korean War.
1953 - Burrhus Frederic (B.F.) Skinner's Science and Human Behavior is published. His form of behaviorism (operant conditioning), which emphasizes changes in behavior due to reinforcement, becomes widely accepted and influences many aspects of American education
1954 - On May 17th, the U.S. Supreme Court announces its decision in the case of Brown v. Board. of Education of Topeka, ruling that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal," thus overturning its previous ruling in the 1896 case of Plessy v.
Brown v. Board of Education is actually a combination of five cases from
different parts of the country. It is a historic first step in the long and
still unfinished journey toward equality in U.S. education.
1955 - Rosa Parks, a
seamstress, refuses to
give up her seat on the bus to a Caucasian passenger and is subsequently
arrested and fined. The Montgomery,
bus boycott follows, giving impetus to the Civil Rights Movement. A year later,
in the case of Browder v. Gale, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that segregated
seating on buses unconstitutional.
1956 – The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Cassification of Educational Goals; Handbook I: Cognitive Domain is published. Often referred to simply as “Bloom’s Taxonomy” because of its primary author, Benjamin S. Bloom, the document actually has four coauthors (M.D. Engelhart, E.J. Furst, W.H. Hill, and David Krathwohl). Still widely used today, Bloom’s Taxonomy divides the cognitive domain into six levels: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis. Handbook II: Affective Domain, edited by Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia, is published in 1964. Taxonomies for the psychomotor domain have been published by other writers.
1957 - The Civil Rights Act of 1957 is voted into law in spite of Strom Thurmond's filibuster. Essentially a voting-rights bill, it is the first civil rights legislation since reconstruction and is a precursor to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
1957 - Federal troops enforce integration in
Little Rock, Arkansas as
the Little Rock 9 enroll at . Central High School
1957 - The
launches Sputnik, the first satellite to orbit the Earth. Occurring in the
midst of the Cold War, it represents both a potential threat to American
national security as well as a blow to national pride.
1958 - At least partially because of Sputnik, science and science education become important concerns in the U.S., resulting in the passage of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) which authorizes increased funding for scientific research as well as science, mathematics, and foreign language education.
1959 - The ACT Test is first administered.
1960 -First grader Ruby Bridges is the first African American to attend
William Frantz Elementary School
in New Orleans.
She becomes a class of one as parents remove all Caucasian students from the
1962 - First published in 1934, Lev Vygotsky's book, Thought and Language is introduced to the English-speaking world. Though he lives to be only 38, Vygotsky's ideas regarding the social nature of learning provide important foundational principles for contemporary social constructivist theories. He is perhaps best known for his concept of "Zone of Proximal Development."
1962 - In the case of Engel v. Vitale, the U. S. Supreme Court rules that the state of
York's Regents prayer violates the First Amendment.
The ruling specifies that "state officials may not compose an official
state prayer and require that it be recited in the public schools of the State
at the beginning of each school day. . . "
1963 - In the cases of School District of Abington Township, Pennsylvania v. Schempp and Murray v. Curlett, the U. S. Supreme Court reaffirms Engel v. Vitale by ruling that "no state law or school board may require that passages from the Bible be read or that the Lord's Prayer be recited in the public schools . . . even if individual students may be excused from attending or participating . . ."
1963 - Samuel A. Kirk uses the term "learning disability" at a
conference on children with perceptual disorders. The term sticks, and in 1964,
the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities, now the Learning
Disabilities Association of America, is formed. Today, nearly one-half of all
students in the U.S.
who receive special education have been identified as having learning disabilities.
1963 - President John F. Kennedy is assassinated. Schools close as the nation mourns its loss. Lyndon Johnson becomes president.
1963 - In response to the large number of Cuban immigrant children arriving in Miami after the Cuban Revolution, Coral Way Elementary School starts the "nation's first bilingual public school in the modern era."
1964 - The Civil Rights Act becomes law. It prohibits discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion or national origin.
1965 - The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is passed on April 9. Part of Lyndon Johnson's "War on Poverty," it provides federal funds to help low-income students, which results in the initiation of educational programs such as Title I and bilingual education.
1965 - The Higher Education Act is signed at Southwest Texas State College on November 8. It increases federal aid to higher education and provides for scholarships, student loans, and establishes a National Teachers Corps.
1965 - Project Head Start, a preschool education program for children from low-income families, begins as an eight-week summer program. Part of the "War on Poverty," the program continues to this day as the longest-running anti-poverty program in the
1965 - Lyndon Johnson signs the Immigration Act of 1965, also known as the Hart-Cellar Act, on October.3rd. It abolishes the National Origins Formula and results in unprecedented numbers of Asians and Latin Americans immigrating to the
classrooms much more diverse.
1966 - The Equality of Educational Opportunity Study, often called the Coleman Report because of its primary author James S. Coleman, is conducted in response to provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Its conclusion that African American children benefit from attending integrated schools sets the stage for school "busing" to achieve desegregation.
1966 - Jerome Bruner's Toward a Theory of Instruction is published. His views regarding learning help to popularize the cognitive learning theory as an alternative to behaviorism.
1966 - Public Law 358, the Veterans Readjustment Benefits Act of 1966, provides not only educational benefits, but also home and farm loans as well as employment counseling and placement services for
veterans. More than 385,000 troops, serve in Vietnam during 1966. From
1965-1975, more than nine million American military personnel are on active
military duty, about 3.4 million of whom serve in Southeast
1968 - Dr. Martin Luther King, Nobel Prize winner and leader of the American Civil Rights Movement, is assassinated in
on April 4th. The Martin Luther King, Jr. Holiday, observed on the third Monday
of January, celebrates his "life and legacy." Memphis, Tennessee
1968 - The Bilingual Education Act, also know as Title VII, becomes law. After many years of controversy, the law is repealed in 2002 and replaced by the No Child Left Behind Act.
1968 - The "Monkey Trial" revisited! In the case of Epperson et al. v.
Arkansas, the U.S. supreme Court finds the state of Arkansas' law
prohibiting the teaching of evolution in a public school or university
1968 - Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm, an African American educator, becomes the first African American woman to be elected to the U.S. Congress.
McCarver Elementary School in
becomes the nation's first magnet school. Tacoma, Washington
1969 - Herbert R. Kohl's book, The Open Classroom, helps to promote open education, an approach emphasizing student-centered classrooms and active, holistic learning. The conservative back-to-the-basics movement of the 1970s begins at least partially as a backlash against open education. .
1969 - On April 30th, the number of
U.S. military personnel in Vietnam stands
at 543,482, the most at any time during the war. College enrollments swell as
many young men seek student deferments from the draft; anti-war protests become
commonplace on college campuses, and grade inflation begins as professors
realize that low grades may change male students' draft status.
1969 - ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), the first "packet-switching" network and precursor of the internet, is created by the U.S. Defense Department. Its first message is sent October 29, at about 10:30 P.M. For alternate perspectives on the origins of the internet, see So, who really invented the internet?
1970 - Four students are killed by Ohio National Guard troops on May 4th during an anti-war protest at
1970 - In his controversial book, Deschooling Society, Ivan Illich sharply criticizes traditional schools and calls for the end of compulsory school attendance.
1970 - Jean Piaget's book, The Science of Education, is published. His Learning Cycle model helps to popularize discovery-based teaching approaches, particularly in the sciences.
1970 - The case of Diana v. California State Board results in new laws requiring that children referred for possible special education placement be tested in their primary language.
1971 - In the case of Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v.
the federal court rules that students with mental retardation are entitled to a
free public education.
1971 - Michael Hart, founder of Project Guttenberg, invents the e-Book.
1972 - Texas Instruments introduces the first in its line of electronic hand-held calculators, the TI-2500 Data Math. TI becomes an industry leader known around the world.
1972 - The Indian Education Act becomes law and establishes "a comprehensive approach to meeting the unique needs of American Indian and Alaska Native students"
1972 - The case of Mills v. the Board of Education of Washington, D.C. extends the PARC v.
ruling to other students with disabilities and requires the provision of
"adequate alternative educational services suited to the child's needs,
which may include special education . . ." Other similar cases
1972 - Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 becomes law. Though many people associate this law only with girl's and women's participation in sports, Title IX prohibits discrimination based on sex in all aspects of education.
1972 - The Marland Report to Congress on gifted and talented education is issued. It recommends a broader definition of giftedness that is still widely accepted today.
involvement in the Vietnam War ends on January 27. More than 58,000 U.S. service
personnel are killed in action during the war. The fighting continues until
April 30, 1975 when South
Vietnam surrenders to the communist North
1973 - Marian Wright Edelman founds the Children's Defense Fund, a non-profit child advocacy organization.
1973 - The Rehabilitation Act becomes law. Section 504 of this act guarantees civil rights for people with disabilities in the context of federally funded institutions and requires accommodations in schools including participation in programs and activities as well as access to buildings. Today, "504 Plans" are used to provide accommodations for students with disabilities who do not qualify for special education or an IEP.
1974 - In the Case of Lau v. Nichols, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the failure of the
to provide English language instruction to Chinese-American students with
limited English proficiency (LEP) is a violation of the Civil Rights Act of
1964. Though the case does not require a specific approach to teaching LEP
students, it does require school districts to provide equal opportunities for
all students, including those who do not speak English. San
Francisco School District
1974 - The Equal Educational Opportunities Act is passed. It prohibits discrimination and requires schools to take action to overcome barriers which prevent equal protection. The legislation has been particularly important in protecting the rights of students with limited English proficiency..
1974 - Federal Judge Arthur Garrity orders busing of African American students to predominantly white schools in order to achieve racial integration of public schools in
. White parents protest,
particularly in Boston,
MA South Boston.
1975 - The Education of All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142) becomes federal law. It requires that a free, appropriate public education, suited to the student's individual needs, and offered in the least restrictive setting be provided for all "handicapped" children. States are given until 1978 (later extended to 1981) to fully implement the law.
1975 - The National Association of Bilingual Education is founded.
1975 - Newsweek's December 8 cover story, "Why Johnny Can't Write," heats up the debate about national literacy and the back-to-the-basics movement.
1977 - Apple Computer, now Apple Inc., introduces the Apple II, one of the first successful personal computers. It and its offspring, the Apple IIe, become popular in schools as students begin to learn with computer games such as Oregon Trail and
|1980 - The Refugee Act of 1980 is signed into law by President Jimmy Carter on March 18th. Building on the Immigration Act of 1965, it reforms immigration law to admit refugees for humanitarian reasons and results in the resettlement of more than three-million refugees in the
United States including many children who bring special
needs and issues to their classrooms.
1980 - President Jimmy Carter signs the Refugee Education Assistance Act into law as the "Mariel Boatlift" brings thousands of Cuban and a small number of Haitian refugees to
1980 - Ronald Reagan is elected president, ushering in a new conservative era, not only in foreign and economic policy, but in education as well. However, he never carries out his pledge to reduce the federal role in education by eliminating the Department of Education, which had become a Cabinet level agency that same year under the Carter administration..
1981 - John Holt's book, Teach Your Own: A Hopeful Path for Education, adds momentum to the homeschooling movement.
1981 - IBM introduces its version of the personal computer (PC) with its Model 5150. It's operating system is MS-DOS.
1982 - In the case of Edwards v. Aguillard, the U.S. Supreme Court invalidates
"Creationism Act," which requires the teaching of creationism
whenever evolution is taught, because it violates the Establishment Clause of
the First Amendment to the Constitution.
1982 - Madeline C. Hunter's book, Mastery Teaching, is published. Her direct instruction teaching model becomes widely used as teachers throughout the country attend her workshops and become "Hunterized."
1982 - In the case of Plyler v. Doe, the U.S. Supreme Court rules in a 5-4 decision that
law denying access to public education for undocumented school-age children
violates the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. The ruling also
found that school districts cannot charge tuition fees for the education of
1982 - In the case of Board of Education v. Pico, the U.S. Supreme court rules that books cannot be removed from a school library because school administrators deemed their content to be offensive.
1983 - The report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education, A Nation at Risk, calls for sweeping reforms in public education and teacher training. Among their recommendations is a forward-looking call for expanding high school requirements to include the study of computer science.
1984 - Public Law 105-332, the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act, is passed with the goal of increasing the quality of vocational-technical education in the
U.S. It is reauthorized in 1998 and
again in 2006 as the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act (PL
1984 -The Emergency Immigrant Education Act is enacted to provide services and offset the costs for school districts that have unexpectedly large numbers of immigrant students.
1985 - In the case of Wallace v, Jaffree, the U.S. Supreme Court finds that
statutes authorizing silent prayer and teacher-led voluntary prayer in public
schools violate the First Amendment.
1985 - Microsoft Windows 1.0, the first independent version of Windows, is released, setting the stage for subsequent versions that make MS-DOS obsolete.
1986 - Christa McAuliffe is chosen by NASA from among more than 11,000 applicants to be the first teacher-astronaut, but her mission ends tragically as the Space Shuttle Challenger explodes 73 seconds after its launch, killing McAuliffe and the other six members of the crew.
1987 - In the case of Edwards v. Aguillard, et al. the U.S. Supreme Court strikes down a
requiring that creation science be taught along with evolution. Will this
controversy ever be resolved?
1989 - The
their "online campus," the first to offer online bachelor's and
master's degrees. It becomes the "largest private university in University
of Phoenix North America."
1990 - Tim Berners-Lee, a British engineer and computer scientist called by many the inventor of the internet, writes the first web client-server protocol (Hypertext Translation Protocol or http), which allows two computers to communicate. On August 6, 1991, he puts the first web site on line from a computer at the CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) in order to facilitate information sharing among scientists. So . . . does this mean that Al Gore didn't invent the internet after all?
1990 - Public Law 101-476, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), renames and amends Public Law 94-142. In addition to changing terminology from handicap to disability, it mandates transition services and adds autism and traumatic brain injury to the eligibility list.
1990 - The Milwaukee Parental Choice program is initiated. It allows "students, under specific circumstances, to attend at no charge, private sectarian and nonsectarian schools located in the city of
1990 - Teach for
America is formed, reestablishing
the idea of a National Teachers Corps.
1990- The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990, the first comprehensive reform since 1965, is enacted on 29 November and increases annual immigration to 700,000 adding to the diversity of our nation and its schools. Specific aspects of the law provide for family-sponsored visas; employment-based visas for priority workers, skilled workers, and "advanced professionals"; and 55,000 diversity visas "allocated to natives of a country that has sent fewer than 50,000 immigrants to the
over the previous five years."
passes the first "charter school" law.
1991 - The smart board (interactive white board) is introduced by SMART Technologies.
City Academy High School,
the nation's first charter school, opens in .
St. Paul, Minnesota
1993 - Jacqueline and Martin Brooks' In Search of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms is published. It is one many books and articles describing constructivism, a view that learning best occurs through active construction of knowledge rather than its passive reception. Constructivist learning theory, with roots such as the work of Dewey, Bruner, Piaget, and Vygotsky, becomes extremely popular in the 1990s.
1993 - The Massachusetts Education Reform Act requires a common curriculum and statewide tests (Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System). As has often been the case, other states follow
Massachusetts' lead and implement similar,
high-stakes testing programs.
1993 - Jones International University becomes the first university "to exist completely online."
1994 - The Improving
America's Schools Act (IASA) is
signed into law by President Bill Clinton on January 25th. It. reauthorizes the
ESEA of 1965 and includes reforms for Title I; increased funding for bilingual
and immigrant education; and provisions for public charter schools, drop-out
prevention, and educational technology.
1994 - As a backlash to illegal immigration,
California voters pass Proposition 187, denying benefits,
including public education, to undocumented aliens in California. It is challenged by the ACLU and
other groups and eventually overturned.
1994 - Jim Clark and Mark Andreesan found Mosaic Communications. The corporation is later renamed Netscape Communications. On December 15th, they release the first commercial web browser, Mozilla 1.0. It is available without cost to individuals and non-profit organizations. By the summer of 1995, more than 80% of internet users are browsing with Netscape!
1994 - CompuHigh is founded. It claims to be the first online high school.
1994-1995 - Whiteboards find their way into
in increasing numbers and begin to replace the blackboard.
becomes the first state to offer universal preschool to all four year olds
whose parents choose to enroll them. More than half of the state's four year
olds are now enrolled.
1996 - James Banks' book, Multicultural Education: Transformative Knowledge and Action, makes an important contribution to the growing body of scholarship regarding multiculturalism in education..
1996 - The
Oakland, California School District
sparks controversy as it proposes that Ebonics be recognized as the native
language of African American children.
1996 - President Bill Clinton signs the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 into law on September 30th.. It prohibits states from offering higher education benefit based on residency within a state (in-state tuition) to undocumented immigrants unless the benefit is available to any
citizen or national. This law conflicts, however, with practices and laws in
New York follows Georgia's lead
and passes legislation that will phase in voluntary pre-kindergarten classes
over a four-year period. However, preschool funding is a casualty of September
11, 2001 as New York
struggles to recover. As of 2008, about 39% of the state's four year olds,
mostly from low-income families, are enrolled.
voters pass Proposition 227, requiring that all public school instruction be in
English. This time the law withstands legal challenges.
1998 - The Higher Education Act is amended and reauthorized requiring institutions and states to produce "report cards" about teacher education (See Title II).
1998 - Google co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin set up a workplace for their newly incorporated search engine in a
garage. Menlo Park, California
1999 - On April 20th, two
High School students go on a killing
spree that leaves 15 dead and 23 wounded at the
school, making it the nations' deadliest school shooting incident. Though
schools tighten safety procedures as a result of the Columbine massacre, school
shootings continue to occur at an alarming rate. Littleton, Colorado
2000 - Diane Ravitch's book, Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms, criticizes progressive educational policies and argues for a more traditional, academically-oriented education. Her views, which are reminiscent of the "back to the basics" movement of the late 1970s and 1980s, are representative of the current conservative trend in education and the nation at large.
2000 - In yet another case regarding school prayer (
v. Doe), the U.S.
Supreme Court rules that the district's policy of allowing student-led prayer
prior to football games violates the Establishment Clause of the First
Amendment. Santa Fe School District
2001 - Nineteen al-Qaeda terrorists hijack four commercial jet airliners on the morning of September 11. They crash two into the twin towers of the
and another into the Pentagon. The fourth plane crashes in a rural area of World
Trade Center Pennsylvania as
passengers try to retake it from the hijackers. A total of 2976 victims as well
as the 19 terrorists are killed. The attacks have a devastating effect on the
and world stock markets, result in the passage of the Patriot Act, formation of
the Department of Homeland Security, provide the impetus for two wars, and take
a lasting toll on Americans' sense of safety and well-being.
2001 - The controversial No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is approved by Congress and signed into law by President George W. Bush on January 8, 2002. The law, which reauthorizes the ESEA of 1965 and replaces the Bilingual Education Act of 1968, mandates high-stakes student testing, holds schools accountable for student achievement levels, and provides penalties for schools that do not make adequate yearly progress toward meeting the goals of NCLB.
2002 - In the case of Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the U.S. Supreme court rules that certain school voucher programs are constitutional and do not violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
2002 - The North American Reggio Emilia
Alliance (NAREA) is formally launched as an
organization. Its goals include promoting the rights of young children and
providing information about the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood
2003 - The Higher Education Act is again amended and reauthorized, expanding access to higher education for low and middle income students, providing additional funds for graduate studies, and increasing accountability.
2003 - The North American Council for Online Learning (NACOL), a non-profit organization dedicated to enhancing K-12 online education, is "launched as a formal corporate entity."
2004 - H.R. 1350, The Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act (IDEA 2004), reauthorizes and modifies IDEA. Changes, which take effect on July 1, 2005, include modifications in the IEP process and procedural safeguards, increased authority for school personnel in special education placement decisions, and alignment of IDEA with the No Child Left Behind Act. The 2004 reauthorization also requires school districts to use the Response to Intervention (RTI) approach as a means for the early identification of students at risk for specific learning disabilities. RTI provides a three-tiered model for screening, monitoring, and providing increasing degrees of intervention using “research-based instruction" with the overall goal of reducing the need for special education services
2005 - In the latest incarnation of the "Monkey Trial," the U.S. District Court of Pennsylvania rules in the case of Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District that teaching "intelligent design" as an alternative to evolution is a violation of the First Amendment.
2007 - On January 1, 2007, the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) became the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD), joining the trend toward use of the term intellectual disability in place of mental retardation.
2007 - Cho Seung-Hui, a 23-year-old student, kills two students in a dorm and then 30 others in a classroom building at
Fifteen others are wounded. His suicide brings the death toll to 33, making it
the deadliest school shooting incident in Virginia Tech University U.S. history.
2007 - In the cases of Parents involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No 1 and Meredith v. Jefferson County Board of Education, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that race cannot be a factor in assigning students to high schools, thus rejecting integration plans in Seattle and Louisville, and possibly affecting similar plans in school districts around the nation.
2007 - Both the House and Senate pass the Fiscal Year 2008 Labor-HHS- Education appropriation bill which includes reauthorization of the No Child Left Behind Act. However, the bill is vetoed by President Bush because it exceeds his budget request. Attempts to override the veto fall short.
2008 - Less than one year after the Virginia Tech massacre, former graduate student Stephen P. Kazmierczak kills five and wounds 17 in a classroom at Northern Illinois University. He later takes his own life.
2008 - Barack Obama defeats John McCain and is elected the 44th President of the
States. Substantial changes in the No Child
Left Behind Act are eventually expected, but with two ongoing wars as well as
the current preoccupation with our nation's economic problems, reauthorization
of NCLB is unlikely to happen any time soon.
2009 - The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009 provides more than 90-billion dollars for education, nearly half of which goes to local school districts to prevent layoffs and for school modernization and repair. It includes the Race to the Top initiative, a 4.35-billion-dollar program designed to induce reform in K-12 education. For more information on the impact of the Recovery Act on education, go to ED.gov.
2009 - The
Common Core State
Standards Initiative, "a state-led effort coordinated by the National Governors
for Best Practices ( ) and the Council
of Chief State School Officers," is launched. It is expected that many,
perhaps most, states will adopt them. NGA
2009 - Quest to Learn (Q2L), the first school to teach primarily through game-based learning, opens in September in
New York City with a class of sixth graders
There are plans to add a grade each year until the school serves students in
grades six through twelve.
2010 - With the
U.S. economy mired in a recession
and unemployment remaining high, states have massive budget deficits. As many
as 300,000 teachers face layoffs.
2010 - New
social studies curriculum standards, described by some as “ultraconservative,”
spark controversy. Many fear they will affect textbooks and classrooms in other
2011 - Sylvia Mendez, whose parents where lead plaintiffs in the historic civil rights case, Mendez vs. Westminster and the California Board of Education, is awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom on February 16th..
2011 - In spite of workers' protests and Democratic legislators leaving the state to delay the vote, the
legislature passes a bill removing most collective-bargaining rights from many
public employees, including teachers. Governor Scott Walker signs the bill into
law on March 11. After legal challenges are exhausted, it is finally implemented in June. Similar
proposals are being considered in Ohio
and several other states.
2011 - President Barack Obama announces on September 23 that the U.S. Department of Education is inviting each State educational agency to request flexibility regarding some requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act.
becomes the first state "to require public schools to check the
immigration status" of students. Though the law does not require schools
to prohibit the enrollment nor report the names of undocumented children,
opponents nevertheless contend it is unconstitutional based on the Plyer v. Doe
2012 - In his January 24th State of the Union Address, President Barack Obama calls for requiring students to stay in school until they graduate from high school or reach age 18. Twenty states and the
District of Columbia
currently require attendance until age 18.
2012 - President Barack Obama announces on February 9 that the applications of ten states seeking waivers from some of the requirements of the No Child Left Behind law were approved.
New Mexico's application is approved a few
days later, bringing the number of states receiving waivers to 11. An
additional 26 states applied for waivers in late February.
2012 - Speaking at an economic summit hosted by the Latino Coalition on May 23, Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney warns of a "National Education Emergency," blames teachers unions for blocking needed education reform, and calls for expanding school choice by offering vouchers to low-income students and those with disabilities.
2012 - On July 6,
become the two most recent states to be granted waivers from some requirements
of the federal No Child left Behind law, bringing the total number of states
granted waivers to 26. Several more states have submitted waiver applications
and are waiting for approval.
2012 - As of August, 32 states and
have been granted waivers from some No
Child Left Behind requirements. However, the waivers for eight states are
"conditional," meaning some aspects of their plans are still under
review. Washington, D.C.
2012 - On December 14, Adam Lanza, 20, kills his mother and then invades Sandy Hook Elementary School where he kills 20 children and six adults, including principal Dawn Hochsprung and psychologist Mary Sherlachmaking, making this the second deadliest mass shooting by a single person in U.S. history.
2013 - On January 11, the Washington Post reports that
Seattle high school
teachers have refused to give the district-mandated Measures of Academy
Progress, joining a "growing grass-roots revolt against the excessive use
of standardized tests."
2013 - On May 22, the Chicago Board of Education votes to close 50 schools, the largest mass closing in
U.S. history. Mayor Rahm Emanuel
and CPS officials claim the closures are not only necessary to reduce costs,
but will also improve educational quality. However, Chicago teachers and other opponents say the
closures disproportionately affect low-income and minority students, but their
efforts to stop the closings, which included two lawsuits, were unsuccessful.
Other cities, including Detroit, Philadelphia, and , have also recently closed
large numbers of public schools. Washington,
2013 - The Chicago Teachers Union files its third lawsuit against the school closings on May 29.
2013 - The
announces on June 7 that it will cut nearly 4000 employees, including 676
teachers as well as many administrators and guidance counselors. School
District of Philadelphia
2013 - On Friday, June 14 the Chicago Public Schools announce that they will be laying off 663 employees, including 420 teachers.
2013 - In the case of Fisher v.
, the U.S. Supreme rules on June 25 that
affirmative action is constitutional only if it is “narrowly tailored.” The
Court then sends the case back to the lower courts to determine if the University of Texas policy meets this standard. University of Texas